“Fake news” dan Pemolisian: Pendekatan Diagram Kreativitas

I Nyoman Sudama

Abstract


Policing and fake news have been view has a linier relation, particularly by the practice of conventional policing that focus on law enforcement activities. Fake news are negative modes in nature that must be handled in such away so will not triger society disorders or influence people to engage in criminal behaviours. By utilizing conseptual application method, this paper analyses fake news as a meme – holon-parton defined in creative practice theory. Therefore it is part of a field that could make fake news become popular memes as there are competition in the field to gain fake news popularity which also depends upon the purpose and goals of creating them. The popularities give advantages for fake news creators in term of capital and influence agen’s habitus. Overall, the presence of fake news and its popularities affect agents in the field of social system. These fake news (negativity) impacts are the police domain to take necessaries actions in the form of policing choices so fake news cycles to become popular can be controlled.   

 


Keywords


Key Words: Fake news, Creative Practice Theory, Teori Sosial Bourdieu, Pemolisian

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alemanno, A., (2018). How to Counter Fake news? A Taxonomy of Anti-Fake news Approaches. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 9(1),1-5.

Allcott, H. and Gentzkow, M., (2017). Social Media and Fake news in the 2016 Election, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2): 211–236.

Bennett, T. dan Silva, E. (2006). Cultural Capital and Inequality – Policy Issues and Contexts. Cultural Trends, 15(2-3): 87-106.

Bourdieu, P., (1986). The Forms of Capital, in John G. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press), 241-58.

Bourdieu, P. and Nice, R. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourdieu, P. and Johnson, R. (1993). The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bureau of Justice Assistance (1994) Understanding Community Policing A Framework for Action, U.S. Department of Justice Monograph, Washington DC.

Chan, J., (2004). Using Pierre Bourdieu’s framework for understanding police culture. Droit et société 1: 327–346.

Chryshnanda D., (2005) “Pola-Pola Pemolisian di Polres Batang”, Disertasi, Universitas Indonesia.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., (1996). Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention, New York: HarperCollins.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Wolfe, R. (2000). New Conceptions and Research Approaches to Creativity: Implications for a Systems Perspective of Creativity in Education’, in K. A. Heller, et al.(eds.), International Handbook of Giftedness and Talent (2nd ed. edn.; Amsterdam; Oxford: Elsevier).

Csikszentmihaly, M. and Henry, J. (2006). Creative Management and Development, London: SAGE.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). The Systems Model of Creativity and Its Applications. In D. K. Simonton (Ed.), The Wiley Handbook of Genius. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Friedland, R. (2009). The endless fields of Pierre Bourdieu, Organizations, 16(6), 1–31

Gill, Charlotte, David Weisburd, Cody W. Telep, Zoe Vitter, and Trevor Bennett. (2014). Community-oriented policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy among citizens: A systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10: 399–428.

Goyanes, M. and Lavin, A. (2018). The Sociology of Fake news, [email protected] Working Paper Series, London School of Economic.

Grusendorf, S. (2016). Bourdieu's field, capital, and habitus in religion, Journal for the Sociological Integration of Religion & Society, 6 (1): 1-13

Jackson, J. and Bradford, B., (2009). Crime, policing and social order: on the expressive nature of public confidence in policing. British journal of sociology, 60 (3). pp. 493-521

Juditha, C., (2018). Interaksi Komunikasi Hoax di Media Sosial serta Antisipasinya, Jurnal Pekommas, 3(1), 31-44.

Kim, M, dan de Guzman, M.C., (2012). Police paradigm shift after the 9/11 terrorist attacks: the empirical evidence from the United States municipal police departments, Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law & Society, 25: 323–342.

Kumar, S. and Shah, N., (2018). False Information on Web and Social Media: A Survey. 1, 1 (April 2018), https://doi.org/10.1145/nnnnnnn.nnnnnnn

Kusumarani, R. and Zo, H. J., (2018). Exploring Digital Fake News Phenomenon in Indonesia CPR South. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3275115

Mckinnon, A. M. (2012). Metaphors in and for the Sociology of Religion: Towards a Theory after Nietzsche’. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 27(2), 203–216.

Metelits, C.M., (2018) Bourdieu’s capital and insurgent group resilience: a field-theoretic approach to the polisario front, Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29:4, 680-708

Mooney, H. (2018) “Fake news" and the Sociological Imagination: Theory Informs Practice, LOEX Quarterly, 44(4), 4-16.

Nadzir, I., Seftiani, S., and Permana, Y.S., (2019). Hoax and Misinformation in Indonesia: Insights from a Nationwide Survey, Perspective 92. ISEAS, Singapore.

Meliala, A. (2003). Memahami Kebijakan Sosial Bidang Keamanan dan Ketertiban Masyarakat, Jurnal Studi Kepolisian, 057, 12-20.

Nugroho, A., (2018). The Analysis of Hoax Spread in Social Media, IOSR J. Humanit. 23(6), 50–60.

Rubin, V. L., Chen, Y. and Conroy, N. J. (2015). Deception detection for news: three types of fakes. Proceedings of the 78th ASIS&T Annual Meeting: Information Science with Impact: Research in and for the Community, American Society for Information Science, 83.

Rubin, V.L., (2016). Deception detection and rumor debunking for social media, The SAGE Handbook of Social Media Research Methods, 342-364.

Salam, A., (2018). The Hoax Phenomenon in Indonesian Society: Observing Anti-Diversity Memes since 2014, Humaniora, 30(3), 315–324.

Shammas, V.L. and Sandberg, S. (2016). Habitus, Capital and Conflict: Bringing Bourdieusian Field Theory to Criminology, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 16(2): 195-213.

Shammas, V. L., (2018). Bourdieu’s five lessons for criminology, Law and Critique 29(2): 201-219.

Shirsat, A., (2018). Understanding the Allure and Danger of Fake news in Social Media Environments, Doctor Dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Ohio, United States.

Tapsell, R., (2019). Indonesia’s Policing of Hoax News Increasingly Politicised, Yusof Ishak Institute, ISEAS PERSPEVTIVE No 75, Singapore.

Tompros, L.W., Crudo, R.A., Pfeiffer, A., and Boghossian, R., (2017). The Constitutionality of Criminalizing False Speech Made on Social Networking Sites in a Post-Alvarez, Social Media-Obsessed World, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 31(1), 65-109.

Utamai, P., (2018). Hoax in modern politics: the meaning of hoax in Indonesian politics and democracy, Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, 22 (2), 85-97.

Velikovsky, J.T., (2014). `Two Successful Transmedia Film Case Studies: The Blair Witch Project (1999) and The Devil Inside (2012). In D. Polson, A.-M. Cook, J. Velikovsky & A. Brackin (Eds.), Transmedia Practice: A Collective Approach (h_ps://storyality.wordpress.com/2013/11/18/storyality-96-transmedia-practice-a-collectiveapproach-2014/) (pp. 103-117). London: ID-Press (InterDisciplinary.Net).

Velikovsky, J. T. (2016). `Communication, Creativity and Consilience in Cinema: A comparative study of the top20 Return-on-Investment (RoI) Movies and the Doxa of Screenwriting’. PhD Thesis, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Australia. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1324018 (http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/1324018)

Wibowo, K. A., Rahmawan, D., and Maryani, E., (2019). In Indonesia, young and old share fake news on social media, The Conversation.

Wiegmann, W.L., (2017). Habitus, Symbolic Violence, and Reflexivity: Applying Bourdieu’s Theories to Social Work, The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 44(4), 95-116.

Williamson, P., (2016). Take the time and effort to correct misinformation. Nature, 540(7632), 171-171.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.31599/jkn.v6i2.469

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Jurnal Keamanan Nasional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.