Network Centric Warfare dan Perang Asimetris di Afghanistan

Azis Rahmani


The development of information technology in the world in the last few decades has made the United States (US) develop military doctrine based on information technology called "warfare network centric". When the US invades Afghanistan as part of the global war against terrorism the doctrine of "network centric warfare" is tested to overcome the conditions of asymmetrical warfare in Afghanistan with the ability to superior information and the use of force in use that can compensate for Taliban fighting and Al-Qaeda is organized by not being hierarchically structured. In conditions of balanced strategic interaction in the conditions of asymmetrical warfare, the US should be able to neutralize Al-Qaeda and the Taliban easily and quickly but the disparities that occur in asymmetric warfare in Afghanistan not only in military strength but also in status, ideological and structural disparities the aim of military operations in Afghanistan has not been fully achieved by the US and has made the war last long.


Afghan War; asymmetrical warfare; network centric warfare

Full Text:



“2001: US Launches Air Strikes Against Taliban.” BBC, 7 Oktober 2001.

“About U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM).” United States Central Command. Diakses 15 November 2014.

“About USSOCOM.” United States Special Operations Command. Diakses 15 November 2014.

Akhtar, Nasreen. “Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Taliban.” International Journal on World Peace 25, no. 4 (Desember 2008): 49–73.

Alberts, David S., John J. Gartska, dan Frederick P. Stein. Network Centric Warfare: Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority. US: CCRP, 2000.

Arreguin-Toft, Ivan. How the Weak Wins Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Barfield, Thomas. “Ulasan tentang Conflict in Afghanistan: Studies in Asymmetric Warfare, Martin Ewans.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39, no. 3 (Agustus 2007): 494–97.

Bennet, Andrew. “Case Study Method: Design, Use, and Comparative Advantages.” In Models, Numbers, and Cases: Methods for Studying International Relations, diedit oleh Detlef F. Sprinz dan Yael Wolinsky-Nahmias, 19–55. USA: The University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Bunker, Robert J., dan Matt Begert. “Operational Combat Analysis of the Al-Qaeda Network.” Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement 11 (2002): 316–39.

“Bush Announces Strikes Against Taliban.” The Washington, 7 Oktober 2001.

Bush, George W. “President Bush Delivers Graduation Speech at West Point.” The White House President George W. Bush, 1 Juni 2002.

Cebrowski, Arthur K., dan John J. Gartska. “Network Centric Warfare: Its Origin and Future.” United State Naval Institute Proceedings 124, no. 1 (Januari 1998): 28–35.

Central Intelligence Agency. Guide to the Analysis of Insurgency. Washington D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 1980.

Cordesman, Anthony H. The Lessons of Afghanistan: Warfighting, Intelligence and Force Transformation. Washington D.C: CSIS, 2002.

Ewans, Martin. Conflict in Afghanistan: Studies in Asymmetric Warfare. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Fukuyama, Francis. America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. USA: Yale University Press, 2006.

Gall, Carlotta. “A Nation Challenged: Mazar-I-Sharif; A Deadly Siege At Last Won Mazar-i-Sharif.” The New York Times, 19 November 2001.

Gunaratna, Rohan. Inside Al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Haddick, Robert. “This Week at War: Why Don’t Stryker Brigades Work in Afghanistan?” Foreign Policy, 6 November 2009.

Hall, Wayne Michael, dan Gary Citrenbaum. Intelligence Analysis: How to Think in Complex Environments. USA: Praeger Security International, 2010.

Hoffman, Bruce. “Lessons of 9/11.” Commitee Record the United States Joint September 11, 2001 Inquiry Staff of the House and Senate Select Committees on Intelligence. RAND, Oktober 2002.

Ikenberry, John. “Liberalism and Empire: Logics of Order in the American Unipolar Age.” Review of International Studies 30, no. 4 (Oktober 2004): 609–30.

Jackson, Brian A. “Groups, Networks, or Movements: A Command and Control-Driven Approach to Classifying Terrorist Organizations and Its Application to Al-Qaeda.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 3 (2006): 241–62.

Jervis, Robert. “Understanding Bush Doctrine.” Political Science Quarterly 118, no. 3 (2003): 365–88.

Johnson, Thomas H., dan M. Chris Mason. “Understanding the Taliban and Insurgency in Afghanistan.” Orbis 51, no. 1 (2007): 71–89.

Jones, Seth G. “The Rise of Afghanistan‟s Insurgency: State Failure and Jihad.” International Security 32, no. 4 (2008): 7–40.

Kacowicz, Arie M. “Case Study Method in International Security Studies.” In Models, Numbers, and Cases: Methods for Studying International Relations, diedit oleh Detlef F. Sprinz dan Yael Wolinsky-Nahmias, 107–25. USA: The University of Michigan Press, 2004.

“Karzai Takes Power in Kabul.” BBC News, 22 Desember 2001.

Katzman, Kenneth. “Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy.” Congressional Research Service, 9 Oktober 2014.

Kibbe, Jennifer D. “The Rise of the Shadow Warriors.” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 2 (April 2004): 102–15.

Lowrey, Annie. “How Osama bin Laden Escaped.” Foreign Policy, 11 Desember 2009.

Mack, Andrew. “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric Conflict.” World Politics 27, no. 2 (1975): 175–200. doi:10.2307/2009880.

“Massive American Bombing on Taliban Frontlines.” Fox News, 5 November 2001.

Mayer, Jean-Francois. “Religion and terrorism – Interview with Dr. Bruce Hoffman.” 21 November 2001.

McInnes, Colin. “A Different Kind of War? September 11 and the United States Afghan War.” Review of International Studies 29, no. 2 (April 2003): 165–84.

Mendelsohn, Barak. “Sovereignty Under Attack.” Review of International Studies 31, no. 1 (Januari 2005): 45–68.

Mitchell, Paul. Network Centric Warfare and coalition operations : the new military operating system. Routledge global security studies; 9. London: Routledge, 2009.

Monten, Jonathan. “The Roots of the Bush Doctrine: Power, Nationalism, and Democracy Promotion in US Strategy.” International Security 29, no. 4 (2005): 112–56.

Naylor, Sean. “The Lessons of Anaconda.” The New York Times, 2 Maret 2003.

Noon, David Hoogland. “Cold War Revival: Neoconservatism and Historical Memory in the War on Terror.” American Studies 48, no. 3 (2007): 75–99.

Office of Force Transformation. The Implementation of Network-Centric Warfare. Washington: Department of Defense United States of America, 2005.

“Operation Anaconda Costs 8 U.S. Lives.”, 4 Maret 2002.

“Operation Enduring Freedom: An Assessment.” Rand Corporation. Diakses 15 November 2014.

Owens, Williams A. “The Emerging US System of Systems.” Strategic Forum, no. 63 (Februari 1996).

Pavilonis, Brigid Myers. “Fighting the Irregular War in Afghanistan: Success in Combat; Struggles in Stabilization.” In The Routledge Handbook of War and Society, diedit oleh Steven Carlton-Ford dan Morten G. Ender, 20–31. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Petraeus, David H. “Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering in Iraq.” Military Review, Februari 2004, 2–12.

“Predator.” General Atomic Aeronautical. Diakses 15 November 2014.

Rohde, David, dan Norimitshu Onishi. “A Nation Challanged: Last Stronghold; Taliban Abandon Last Stronghold; Omar Is Not Found.” The New York Times, 8 Desember 2001.

Rose, Gideon. “Generation Kill: A Conversation with Stanley McChrystal.” Foreign Affairs 92, no. 2 (Maret–April 2013).

Rumsfeld, Donald H. “Transforming The Military.” Foreign Affairs 81, no. 3 (Mei–Juni 2002): 20–32.

Ryan, Maria. Neoconservatism and the American Century. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Rzehak, Lutz. “Remembering The Taliban.” In The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan, diedit oleh Robert D. Crews dan Amin Tarzi. USA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Sageman, Marc. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

“SOFLAM.” Northrop Grumman. Diakses 15 November 2014.

Stepanova, Ekaterina. Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects. SIPRI Research Report No. 23. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Sullivan, Patricia L. “War Aims and War Outcomes: Why Powerful States Lose Limited Wars.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 51, no. 3 (2007): 496–524.

Tanner, Stephen. Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the Fall of Taliban. USA: De Capo Press, 2002.

Teranova, Ekaterina. Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

“The Battle for Mazar-i-Sharif.” The New York Times, 10 November 2001.

“Who are the Northern Alliance.” BBC News, 13 November 2001.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Keamanan Nasional

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.